What are Genes and Chromosomes?
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Genes are the individual set of recipes (or instructions) which control specific aspects of our growth and development. Chromosomes are found in each of our cells and are the packaging for our genes. If we think of genes as recipes which control our development then chromosomes are the book in which the individual recipes are found. Each chromosome contains thousands of genes.
Humans have 22 pairs of non-sex chromosomes and 1 pair of sex chromosomes, totalling 46 chromosomes. A male has an X and a Y chromosome where as the female has X and another X. All the genes in each chromosome has many different functions in making the human body develop.
Each chromosome is divided into two sections called the "p" arm and the "q" arm. The "p" is the short arm and the "q" is the long arm. When looked closely at, a chromosome has many light and dark "bands" specific to that chromosome number. Each "band" is numbered starting from where the "p" and "q" arm meet, called the Centro mere. The number titling each band increases the further away from the Centro mere you travel.